Food items: Capon, Chicken, Duck, Goose, Grouse, Guinea Hen, Partridge, Pheasant, Pigeon, Poussin/Cornish Hen, Quail, Turkey, other itemsRecommended gas mixtures
Dependent upon customer preferences, in some cases high levels of oxygen are used.
• 30% CO₂, 70% N₂
• 20% O₂, 30% CO₂, 50% N₂
• 60% CO₂, 40% N₂
• 70-80% O₂, 20-30% CO₂
• Bulk: 100% CO₂
The gases and mixtures listed above are for general guidance. To identify the optimum gas for your product and process, we recommend you undertake a product trial with the help of an Air Products MAP gas specialist.Storage temperature
• Legal maximum*: 8° C
• Recommended: -1° C to + 2° C Achievable shelf-life
• In air: 4-7 days
• In MAP: 10-21 days
Principle spoilage organisms and mechanics
Pseudomonas species (in air), Brochothrix species, Lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds.
Food poisoning hazards include
Clostridium species, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter species, E.coli and E.coli 0157.
Typical MAP machines
• TFFS – Thermoform-fill-seal
• PTLF – Preformed tray and lidding film
• VC – Vacuum chamber
• ST – Snorkel-type
Typical types of package
Retail: Tray and lidding film
Bulk and primal: Bag-in-box, Master pack
Examples of typical MAP materials
For chilled raw poultry and game the principal spoilage mechanism is microbial growth, particularly growth of Pseudomonas species and Achromobacter species. These aerobic spoilage bacteria are very effectively inhibited by inclusion of CO₂ in MAP.
Levels of CO₂ in excess of 20% are required to significantly extend the shelf-life of raw poultry and game birds. For retail MA packs of raw poultry and game, the proportion of CO₂ in the gas mixture should not be higher than 35% since pack collapse and excessive drip may be induced. Pack collapse is not a problem for bulk MA master packs and hence 100% CO₂ is recommended.
In retail MA packs, a mixture of 30% CO₂, 70% N₂ is often recommended. The achievable shelf-life of MA packed raw poultry and game will depend on the species, fat content, initial microbial load, gas mixture, and temperature of storage. Possible food poisoning risks can be minimised by maintenance of recommended chilled temperatures, good hygiene and handling practices throughout and adequate cooking prior to consumption.