Food items: Capon Galantine, Chicken Ballotine, Chicken Roll, Cured Game Birds, Cured Poultry, Duck Ballotine, Duck Pâté, Duck Galantine, Pheasant Galantine, Pigeon Galantine, Smoked Chicken, Smoked Duck, Smoked Poussin, Smoked Turkey, Turkey Bacon, Turkey Ballotine, Turkey Galantine, Turkey Roll, other items
Recommended gas mixture
The gases and mixtures listed above are for general guidance. To identify the optimum gas for your product and process, we recommend you undertake a product trial with the help of an Air Products MAP gas specialist.
• Legal maximum*: 8° C
• Recommended**: 0° C to +3° C
• In air: 5-10 days
• In MAP: 7-21 days
Principle spoilage organisms and mechanics
Pseudomonas species (in air), Brochothrix species, Lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds.
Food poisoning hazards include
Clostridium species, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus species, E.coli and E.coli 0157.
Typical MAP machines
• TFFS – Thermoform-fill-seal
• PTLF – Preformed tray and lidding film
• HFFS – Horizontal form-fill-seal
Typical types of package
Retail: Tray and lidding film, Tray inside pillow pack
Examples of typical MAP materials
Lidding and/or pillow pack film:
The principal spoilage mechanism for cooked, cured and processed poultry and game bird products is microbial growth. For cooked products, the heating process should kill vegetative bacterial cells and inactivate degradative enzymes. Consequently, spoilage of cooked poultry and game bird products is primarily due to post-cooking contamination by micro-organisms which can be minimised by MAP with CO₂ /N₂ mixtures and good hygiene and handling practices. A gas/product ratio of 2:1 is recommended.
Cured and processed poultry and game bird products contain relatively high levels of salt and/or other preservatives which effectively inhibit a wide range of spoilage microorganisms.
Possible food poisoning hazards are primarily due to post-cooking, curing or processing contamination can be minimised by maintenance of recommended chilled temperatures and good hygiene and handling practices. The reduced aw and/or addition of salt and/or other preservatives in most cooked, cured and processed poultry and game bird products inhibit most food poisoning bacteria.