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Freshline® Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) Gas Selector: find out your optimum gas mix

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Raw Poultry and Game

Raw Poultry and Game

Food items: Capon, Chicken, Duck, Goose, Grouse, Guinea Hen, Partridge, Pheasant, Pigeon, Poussin/Cornish Hen, Quail, Turkey, other items

Recommended gas mixtures
Dependent upon customer preferences, in some cases high levels of oxygen are used.

30% CO2
70% N2
20% O2
30% CO2
50% N2

60% CO2
40% N2
70-80% O2
20-30% CO2
100% CO2
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The gases and mixtures listed above are for general guidance. To identify the optimum gas for your product and process, we recommend you undertake a product trial, with the help of an Air Products MAP gas specialist. If you would like a specialist to contact you to discuss this more click here.

Storage temperature
Legal maximum*: 8° C
Recommended: -1° C to + 2° C

Achievable shelf-life
In air: 4-7 days
In MAP: 10-21 days

Principle spoilage organisms and mechanics
Pseudomonas species (in air), Brochothrix species, Lactic acid and bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds.

Food poisoning hazards include
Clostridium species, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter species, E.coli and E.coli 0157.

Typical MAP machines
TFFS – Thermoform-fill-seal
PTLF – Preformed tray and lidding film
VC – Vacuum chamber
ST – Snorkel-type

Typical types of package
Retail: Tray and lidding film
Bulk and primal: Bag-in-box, Master pack

Examples of typical MAP materials

Lidding film:


Raw PoultryFor chilled raw poultry and game the principal spoilage mechanism is microbial growth, particularly growth of Pseudomonas species and Achromobacter species. These aerobic spoilage bacteria are very effectively inhibited by inclusion of CO2 in MAP.

Levels of CO2 in excess of 20% are required to significantly extend the shelf-life of raw poultry and game birds. For retail MA packs of raw poultry and game, the proportion of CO2 in the gas mixture should not be higher than 35% since pack collapse and excessive drip may be induced. Pack collapse is not a problem for bulk MA master packs and hence 100% CO2 is recommended.

In retail MA packs, a mixture of 30% CO2, 70% N2 is often recommended. The achievable shelf-life of MA packed raw poultry and game will depend on the species, fat content, initial microbial load, gas mixture, and temperature of storage. Possible food poisoning risks can be minimised by maintenance of recommended chilled temperatures, good hygiene and handling practices throughout and adequate cooking prior to consumption.

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* The Food Safety (Temperature Control) regulations 1995 states that the maximum Storage temperature for chilled perishable foods is 8C. There will be flexibility to vary this when scientifically justified. For legal temperature storage requirements, please contact the Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association.